Home' RTCA Documents for Review : C2 Link Systems MASPS_Draft Contents Appendix C
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FAA ATC Requirements Concerning Separation and Traffic Advisories
COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE - Take the following actions, as appropriate, if
two-way radio communications are lost with an aircraft:
Note C-1. When an IFR aircraft experiences two-way radio communications failure,
air traffic control is based on anticipated pilot actions. Pilot procedures and
recommended practices are set forth in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM),
CFRs, and pertinent military regulations.
Note C-2. Should the pilot of an aircraft equipped with a coded radar beacon
transponder experience a loss of two-way radio capability, the pilot can be expected
to adjust the transponder to reply on Mode 3/A Code 7600.
a. In the event of lost communications with an aircraft under your control
jurisdiction use all appropriate means available to reestablish communications
with the aircraft. These may include, but not be limited to, emergency
frequencies, Navigational Aids (NAVAIDs) equipped with voice capability,
Flight Service Stations (FSS), Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC), etc.
b. Broadcast clearances through any available means of communications including
the voice feature of NAVAIDs.
c. Attempt to re-establish communication by having the aircraft use its transponder
or make turns to acknowledge clearances and answer questions.
See and Avoid
See and avoid is a requirement for aircraft operating in the NAS. CFR, Title 14, Part 91.113
states in part:
“When weather conditions permit, regardless of whether an operation is conducted under
instrument flight rules or visual flight rules, vigilance shall be maintained by each person
operating an aircraft as to see and avoid other aircraft.”
DAA System Overview
The DAA system consists of the DAA equipment, the remote pilot, C2 Link System, and
other systems necessary to maneuver from traffic intruders. The DAA equipment includes
hardware, software, firmware, processors, displays, and controls. It is designed to display
traffic relative to the ownship position, alert the remote pilot when traffic is approaching
the DAA well-clear boundary and provide guidance for remaining well clear. (See next
subsection for the definition of well clear).
The DAA equipment has two distinct domains: The UA and the CS. The UA domain
detects traffic using three types of sensors, active Mode Select (Mode S) surveillance,
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) In and airborne radar. These
surveillance sensors detect most traffic types, including non-cooperative aircraft, Air
Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS)-equipped aircraft (Mode A, Mode C,
and Mode S), ADS-B Out, and TCAS II-equipped aircraft. The CS allows the remote pilot
to conduct operations using five types of activities: Aviate, Communicate, Navigate,
Integrate, and Manage the C2 Link System.
Because the regulation does not preclude an aircraft from maneuvering to stay well clear,
even though it has the right-of-way, the approach taken by the DAA functionality complies
with Section 91.113 of the federal regulations. It is possible that an action taken by the UA
to remain well clear negates a maneuver performed by an intruder, causing a loss of well
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