Home' RTCA Documents for Review : C2 Link Systems MASPS_Draft Contents Appendix A
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traditional manned aviation. As such, the subsections below provide a review of how these
life cycle aspects could impact the requirements on the C2 Link System.
Developing a UAS starts with a careful analysis of the proposed missions and the
mechanisms required to meet those missions. For example, rail line inspections must be
able to detect a break in a rail that has failed due to cold temperatures. These fractures can
be as small as 2 millimeters (mm). Finding a sensor that can reliably detect these small
fractures that can be carried on an aircraft at the optimal altitude and speed require s special
development of the sensor, the aircraft, or both. Military technology may exist that could
meet the mission needs but will most likely be prohibitively expensive , large, or heavy, or
restricted as to who may use it and when and where the technology can be used.
Cost-effectiveness is also a factor that must be considered. An aircraft and sensor package
that costs significantly more than the existing method of accomplishing the mission will
not be a successful design. The operational needs of a UAS to accomplish the mission are
also a source of design and development considerations. The operating environment will
also dictate design considerations. The altitude and speed restrictions for the airborne
sensors may also drive the design of the aircraft. Cost-effectiveness of the design will
depend on the technology required and the certification requirements applied by the FAA.
Development of the aircraft and the C2 Link System combination must be done in
partnership with the FAA Aviation Safety Organization. Since no proven designs or
standards exist, every new development program will involve a negotiation with the FAA
to determine the certification requirements. Trades will have to be made between
optimizing the mission and the cost of meeting the certification requirements. For example,
if the redundancy and equipage requirements to enter a class of airspace cause the cost to
greatly exceed the benefits of the mission in that airspace , the CONOPS or scenarios for
that mission would have to be modified. It is likely that the development process will
require several preliminary designs to validate the operational suitability of the C2 Link
System-aircraft combination. Certification implications can be evaluated for each
developmental prototype to determine cost-effectiveness for the design. Limiting the
operating area of the initial phase of operations could be useful in limiting the cost and
reducing risk in the initial stages of developing and certifying a new UAS.
Many beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) C2 Link Systems exist (e.g., current satellite
systems) but cannot be modified cost-effectively. This fact will require careful
consideration as part of the design trades. The cost of deploying a purpose-built C2 Link
System could be cost prohibitive, forcing the developer to accept the operational limitations
that would be necessary to achieve certification of the UAS using an existing network as
part of a C2 Link System. Safety risk assessment techniques will be needed to understand
Operational approval for a UAS is driven by the need for the UAS to coexist in the existing
NAS with manned aviation. The FAA has no plans to alter the existing airspace structure
to facilitate UAS integration. The FAA policy is that the UA must be able to seamlessly
(or near-seamlessly) integrate into the existing regulatory framework that governs the
NAS. The challenges to this integration are the right of way rules: 14 CFR Part 91 §91.111,
§91.113, and §91.115. These rules require all aircraft to see and avoid other aircraft and
remain well clear of those aircraft. Since the UAS remote pilot cannot “see” the other
aircraft, (1) a technological solution is required to allow the remote pilot to detect
proximate aircraft in a timely manner to allow her/him to maneuver the aircraft to remain
well clear and (2) such UA operations would need to be conducted under IFR.
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