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camera to the location of the detected object. The real-time radar location information could be continually
used to steer the PTZ, thus following the object of interest as it moves.
With a GIS-type COP map of the airport and a CCTV display, the above integrated PIDS scenario could
display a moving icon on a map indicating the near real-time location of the object. The icon position would
update every time the radar provides a detection update. In addition, the PIDS video display would
automatically show a visual image of the detected object of interest, therefore providing the end user with
information that there is something in the area of interest, where exactly it is, and what it is.
A second illustration of PIDS integration involves the layering of sensor systems to provide for alarm
verification. In this example the PIDS consists of an intelligent video (IV) analytics system coupled with a
fence-mounted detection system. The IV system would have the ability to detect an object in a pre-
determined field of view and determine if the object crosses into or across a virtual boundary. The IV system
will provide the time, location, and video of an event. The fence detection sensor will report on the time
and location of someone touching or climbing on a fence. Each system has the ability to issue an alarm, but
the integration of the systems will require that both systems report an alarm before the PIDS issues an alarm
to the end user.
In this example, the IV system consists of a number of cameras on poles staring down an airport perimeter
fence line. The IV analytics allow for programming the system so that it can detect and report (an alert) on
an object entering an area before the fence line, and can also detect and report (an alarm) if someone climbs
on/over the fence. The fence system can report an alarm if someone actually touches the fence.
The difference between an alert and an alarm in this example is that an alert issued to the end user is simply
a notice that he/she should look at the PIDS display because something may be happening; there is no
required action on the part of the end user. An alarm is a notice to the end user that something is happening
and the end user must take some action.
As an intruder approaches the fence line, the system would alert the end user that there is activity near the
fence line. Once the system internally receives an alarm from the fence system (with time and location) and
an internal alarm from the IV system with time and location, it will correlate the individual data points
(time and location) and if they are the same – within a threshold – the PIDS will declare an intrusion alarm.
The end user would see both a map with the intrusion location indicated by an icon, and should have video
of the intrusion.
In this example, the PIDS integration is verifying the alarm situation declared by one system with the alarm
from a second system. The purpose of this is to ensure a high probability of detection (PD) with a low
nuisance alarm rate (NAR). If the fence system sends and internal alarm to the PIDS but the IV does not
detect an object at the same time in the same location, then the PIDS will not declare an alarm because the
fence sensor is reporting on a nuisance alarm (possible heavy wind blowing and vibrating the fence).
Staffing, Training, and Sustainment (Maintenance)
Staffing for security monitoring varies among airports based on factors such as geographic layout of the
airport, level of integration between perimeter systems, such as CCTV, analytics, sensors, etc. Below are
some examples of what airports consider locally in establishing staffing levels.
PIDS standalone or Physical Security Information Management system (PSIM)
Who monitors inside and outside (patrols vs. CCTV)
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