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Operations (COOP) deployments in case of main facility outages is also recommended, but this may be
achieved without incorporating all the “bells and whistles” of the main facility. A COOP plan should specify
what functions are to be provided at the alternate site, data backup schedules, and emergency and periodic
training personnel assignments and deployments.
The Security Operations Center (SOC) is at the heart of the issue, because no matter how many or how
good the technological sensor deployment, and no matter how precise the information gathered and
reported, all the data comes back to a central SOC to initiate decision-making and resource deployment,
some of which may be automated while much may require human analysis, intervention and follow-up.
Illustrations in the SOC section represent the general flow of information from access controls, cameras,
intrusion detection and other sensor systems into the SOC, and emphasize the point that access control is
but a single element of a complex security, communications and operational system that will require a
relatively high level of integration, automation, and personnel to function effectively. Alerts provide system
notifications to operators that the sensors have identified a situation of potential interest that may or may
not warrant immediate attention.
Conversely, an alarm typically will require some kind of immediate system and / or operator response. In
the context of the ISSA standards, the Security Operations Center is where information processing is most
critical, coupling human operational assessments of the relevance and consequences of all events, including
access control, to deploy security personnel to respond appropriately to events and to resolve outcomes.
The configuration and functionality of the SOC depends on its role and relationship with responder dispatch
and incident management functions. All of these functions may be performed in the SOC; however, at many
airports, the dispatch and incident management functions are performed in separate and / or consolidated
dispatch center and command post levels. Additional information is available in Section 7: SOC.
Integration of an airport security access control system goes beyond component, subsystem and technology
to address common applications, data acquisition / presentation / dissemination, common operational
picture (situational awareness), and stakeholder requirements. The integration of systems to satisfy the
needs of the access control system(s) requires architected solutions to ensure that information availability,
confidentiality, integrity and privacy is maintained as well as the overall security of all artifacts of the
Architectural considerations for an integration solution should also address the concept of operations of the
system, life cycle integration considerations (especially when legacy systems are integrated with emerging
technologies), security implications, risk assessment and system vulnerability, and access
control/configuration management as they relate to the totality of the PACS. Scalability to incorporate
evolving requirements, stakeholder concerns and migration of legacy systems with emerging technologies
can be customized to provide common operational baseline. Guidance can be found in Section 8:
Integration with additional guidance interspersed in other subsections.
The situational awareness component of integration would be to acquire, process, and generate a common
operational picture (COP) to stakeholders in the context of the security access control system. This COP
could be the level of details as reported by the SOC on an incident to the affected stakeholders or the
response protocol to an incident triggered by a door sensor connected to the PIDS.
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