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single video stream. Other multi-imager cameras may require only one IP address and one license
for the output stream;
Integration Platform licensing: VMS and PSIM licensing is broadly based on three factors: (i) The
number of sensors under management (because it has to communicate with each and every one; (ii)
the number of components (because the interfaces must be built, integrated and maintained
throughout the life of the system); and (iii) the number of users.
Configuration Management/Migration Issues
Most airports physical security infrastructure has evolved over time. This often results in a heterogeneous
environment, with some older components, and some newer ones as well as a few that might be under
development. For example, a video subsystem might include some older DVRs, some newer NVRs as well
as some cutting edge high-resolution and megapixel IP cameras running on dedicated servers. That scenario
represents three different sets of siloed components. The situation could be much worse in a geographically-
dispersed multi-terminal facility.
The challenge with these silo components is that they provide a weaker situational awareness than if they
were combined. In the scenario above, an operator who wants to replay a given camera needs to know
which system it belongs to, pull that system up on his screen, adapt to the system’s user interface and
remember how it handles rewind and replay. If the video needs to be exported, it is normal for each system
to export tamper-detectable video clips using different or even proprietary formats, which are then
incompatible with each other, so they cannot be combined into a forensic report.
Airports frequently experience moves, additions, and changes including upgrades to existing security
systems to cope with evolving threats, regulations, and technologies. An airport may be locked into its
current system because of the magnitude of the existing investment which makes the cost of wholesale
removal and replacement difficult to justify. If a PSIM solution is in place, it should be able to integrate
both legacy and new subsystems, operating side by side, until such time as older components can be
More users mean additional traffic on the network and load on the server. This burden is made worse for
data intensive components such as video management systems, especially if multiple people want to view
the same camera, which is common during a major incident.
Having a larger number of users also creates functionality and priority challenges that may not be so evident
for very small numbers of concurrent users. For example, which group of operators receives an alarm and
what happens when one of them acknowledges it? What if that person is away and it needs to be escalated?
What if there is a conflict and two people want to move a single PTZ camera in different directions triggered
by different events?
Mobile robotic devices constitute a class of unconventional users. First generation security robots capable
of roaming within the non-secure area of a terminal frequented by passengers and meters-greeters are
commercially available. These robotic devices are typically equipped with two-way voice communications
over WiFi links and licensed bands; video cameras and video transmission links; GPS and WiFi direction
finding for geolocation; and public address loudspeakers. It would be easy to add sensors for detecting toxic
and explosive substances; facial recognition software to identify persons against a database developed by
the airport or by public safety agencies; AI software for voice interaction with passengers; and other
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