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these decisions are (a) improving event resolution, (c) reducing operator workload and stress, (c) technical
difficulty, and (d) cost, including life cycle costs of updating each of the elements being integrated.
Basic integration consists of using access events to display video from cameras near the event using two
side-by-side video monitors - one for access event data and logs, perhaps shown in association with a map
or an engineered drawing of the event area, and a second to display video from cameras in the vicinity of
the event. In this case, the software programs are linked through an API, typically with either the PACS or
the VMS vendor having lead responsibility for completing the task.
A higher level and more expensive form of integration effectively merges the software programs so that
they appear to function as a single entity provided by a single vendor. PSIM solutions are typically done
Several industry groups have been formed to standardize protocols for digital video systems and for their
integration with other elements of physical security systems. Their common goal is improved hardware and
software compatibility but each group has its own focus, and their standards differ in important respects.
The Open Network Video Interface Forum (ONVIF) is composed of most of the leading
manufacturers of video hardware and software. ONVI standards focus on camera, encoder, and
software compatibility including VMS and PSIM integration.
The Physical Security Interoperability Alliance (PSIA) does have video manufacturers as members,
but it also includes leading access control hardware and software manufacturers and suppliers of
building automation systems. The emphasis is on making these elements interoperate, e.g., handing
off access control alerts so that video imagery and decision making software can utilize such
The Security Industry Association (SIA) is working on access control integration using
specifications of leading access control hardware and software manufacturers, which have been de
facto standards for many years, and the best practices of experienced security system integrators.
All of these groups have published specifications and/or standards, which continue to be developed and
refined, and all are recruiting additional members.
Stating that a camera or other video product “complies” with a published industry standard does not assure
that it will interoperate with “compliant” products of other manufacturers in a system context. The only
way to have such assurance is to physically test the products under the conditions of use.
Security Operations Centers (SOCs) are discussed in Section 7: SOC. There are many ways to configure
operator stations, video monitors, and video walls in a SOC. The challenge is to scale such capabilities for
the particular needs of an airport without overly burdening the SOC operators. Chapter 7 illustrates the wide
diversity of approaches - some provide only for basic operator functions, while others equip multiple
operator stations and provide video walls for group viewing.
Standards exist for the equipment but not for how operator stations should be configured to perform the
specified functions and to reflect operator preferences.
Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) Systems
PSIM provides a higher and broader level of integration than VMS and is focused on Command and Control
Center solutions. [Refer: Section 8: Integration for additional details on the role of PSIM in integrating
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