Home' RTCA Documents for Review : DO-230H FRAC Contents 110
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Self-contained readers are available in a growing number of configurations. Packaging includes both a
small multifactor reader-controller connected to an external door locking device such as a magnetic lock,
or completely self-contained as an integrated part of the door mortise lock with standard door handle. These
units may include mechanical key as an over-ride.
User records and access time restrictions are usually programmed locally at the door by use of programming
cards, although some manufacturers offer wireless communication capabilities. This enables several units
to be programmed form a central server, similar to a hard wired network.
Card – Reader Mutual Authentication
Since the first 125 KHz proximity card and readers emerged nearly 40 years ago, the technology is today
the most common. Industry estimates indicate that nearly 80% of PACS deployments use these cards and
associated readers. Initially, the proximity card carried only small amounts of information such as a unique
identifier, usually an eight to 10-digit number.
Since that time, newer, high frequency (13.56 MHz) proximity cards and readers have emerged. These
cards feature larger memory capacity and faster transfer card to reader transfer rates to a PACS reader.
As a technology becomes more widely adopted, the incentive to create compromising technologies
increases as well. Today, the widespread use and large amount of data that may be stored and released by
a card, the large number of access control points where proximity cards and readers are deployed combined
with increasingly easy access to compromising technology have resulted in card duplication, cloning and
New countermeasures are currently being developed and in the next year, cards and readers will emerge
that perform mutual authentication between card and reader before the card releases any information to the
reader. Mutual card/reader authentication virtually eliminates vulnerabilities such as unauthorized card
duplication, cloning and alteration. In addition, mutual authentication is an effective countermeasure against
attacks such as surreptitious reader substitution of an authentic to a counterfeit reader that may be designed
to store card data collected during normal access transactions and harvested by an adversary at a later time
for the purpose of creating cards with known good identifiers.
These readers and cards are available from a growing number of reader manufacturers and may be designed
to be plug-in replacements to most currently installed PACS with no or minimal modifications.
The benefit is increased security and confidentiality of personal card data.
Virtualization takes the content of a physical machine and allows it to operate along with other virtual
machines on the same physical computing hardware. Virtualization is an evolving tool that is becoming a
key aspect in both software and hardware design of modern security systems. Virtualization may impact
physical access control, identity management, video control/storage, communications, and emergency
management systems. The benefits of security system server virtualization include:
Cost reduction through hardware consolidation
Disaster recovery preparedness options – redundancy, backup and recovery
Provisioning of processing power to the applications as needed
Optimization of storage resources for data retention and archiving
Cost savings through reduction in hardware and staff due to fewer physical machines to support
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