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coercivity magnetic stripe technology should be considered in an aviation environment. A typical
magnetic stripe contains three encoding tracks where Track 2 is typically used for PACS
Wiegand Cards – The Wiegand card is also called an embedded-wire card. The data output stream
produced by a Wiegand card reader is often referred to as 26-bit Wiegand and is the most common
format of traditional Wiegand readers. Many other card and reader technologies utilize this de-facto
industry standard reader unidirectional communications format. Wiegand cards are seldom used in
airports and included for reference purposes only.
Proximity (Low Frequency) Radio Frequency Interface Cards – PACS proximity cards are
primarily 125 KHz inductive coupling (passive) radio frequency interface technology. A passive
electronic coded card, the circuits within the card activate to produce a coded RF signal when within
range of the energy field of the nearby reader. The reader then receives this coded signal.
Contactless (13.56MHz) interface memory cards (ISO14443 A/B, ISO15693 open interface)
Many proximity and RF card readers produce various Wiegand output formats (26-bit, 28-bit,
32-bit, 37-bit, 48-bit, etc.). There are a number of low frequency proximity technologies that are
not interoperable (e.g. FSK, PSK, ASK). Reader and card technologies shall be compatible.
Smart Cards may be used to securely store and carry biometric information. When used in an
appropriate smart card/ biometric reader, some smart cards are capable of performing On Card
Comparison. This enhances privacy since the enrolled biometric never leaves the cryptographically
protected container of the smart card.
Biometric – Biometrics can be used as a credential as a standalone authentication (for a secured
credential a user may achieve this with biometric only by using two different biometric types). To
be interoperable with as many PACS as possible, many biometric readers can be ordered to produce
different output formats. Various Wiegand, RS485 as well as other formats are commonly offered
by biometric reader manufacturers. Legacy card types often contain a site-specific data object
referred to as a Site Code, or Facility Code and a five-digit unique number. The site code is encoded
in the card and must match a site code stored in the PACS before the PACS will processes the
unique five-digit number for access authorization.
Visual (Flash Pass) –features or images that are authenticated with the human eye such as symbols
and color coding. [Refer: Section 18.104.22.168. Personalized Information – Color Coding].
Smart Cards – Use of high frequency 13.56 MHz smart cards allows PACS to obtain the benefits
of strong card authentication, user authentication using a card PIN and/or a biometric template
stored on the card (or using a match on card). No current standard exists today in the United States
(outside of PIV) allowing interoperability between PACS using smart cards as a credential. Hybrid
smart cards feature more than one Integrated Circuit Chip, ICC, and reader interface, i.e. both
contact and contactless, or 13.56 MHz and 125 KHz, to name two examples.
Credential Form Factors
Credentials used for physical access control come in a variety of form factors as seen in Chart: 4-1:
Physical Access Control Form Factors. Most commonly seen in the form of a typical credit card size,
other form factors are available. Key fobs, wrist watches mobile devices may be used to carry a credential.
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