Home' RTCA Documents for Review : DO-230H FRAC Contents 43
©2017 RTCA, Inc.
Vascular Pattern Recognition uses near-infrared light to reflect or transmit images of blood
vessels of a hand or finger for personal recognition. Different vendors use different parts of the
hand, palms, or fingers, but rely on a similar methodology.
It is important to note that there is no one best biometric modality. Each modality has its own characteristics,
and it is the specific application environment and system requirements that determine which biometric
technologies are most appropriate to implement. Given that there are many uses of biometrics; it can be a
challenge for first time users to know how to begin their search for the biometric modality that best meets
their needs. The first step in the process is to determine if biometrics is a security feature that airport
operators wish to implement. Once a decision is made to implement biometrics, the next step is to assess
which biometric best meets the operational requirements. Following are some of the desirable
characteristics of a biometric that should be considered:
Maturity - Some biometric modalities, such as fingerprint, have been in use for many decades
and there is a wealth of information on every aspect of its use. Other modalities, like vascular
recognition, are comparatively new and there is consequently less information upon which to
base a selection decision. As a general rule, a biometric modality that has demonstrated
operational success long enough to be considered “mature” deserves serious consideration.
Accuracy - A key performance consideration is the ability of the biometric modality to acquire
and match a biometric sample at a level of accuracy that meets the requirements of the intended
application. Accuracy will generally be expressed as several related measures including
Failure-to-Enroll Rate (FTE), False-Rejection-Rate (FRR), False-Acceptance-Rate (FAR), and
Failure-to-Acquire Rate (FTA). Accuracy is not just a function of the robustness of the
vendor’s feature extraction and matching algorithm. Accuracy can be negatively impacted by
poor sample quality, environmental effects, improper user interaction with the sensor, and
other external factors.
Uniqueness - While a biometric characteristic may have recurring similarities between
different persons; there should be sufficient uniqueness for the matching algorithm to
discriminate between all individuals in a given population. This is particularly critical for
applications that search an entire database to determine a match (one -to-many matching) and
less critical for verification applications that match a biometric sample against a single known
record (one-to-one matching). Some biometric modalities, such as hand geometry, may not
produce sufficient uniqueness to support a one-to-many matching application but will perform
well in most one-to-one matching applications. Generally speaking, the best biometric
modalities are those that exhibit a high level of uniqueness. Fingerprint and iris are considered
highly unique biometrics.
Collectability - A good biometric is one that is easy to collect and measure for both enrollment
and for subsequent use in transactions, such as access entry. If a biometric sensor is unable to
consistently collect a biometric sample of sufficient quality from the user population, the
overall performance will be adversely affected. This can result in a high Failure- to-Enroll Rate
and/or high Failure-to-Acquire Rate.
Universality - The best biometric modalities use characteristics that all persons in the user
population possess. While there can be injuries, disabilities or other circumstances that result
in a person not being able to present a specific biometric characteristic, such exceptions should
be minimal and manageable for the airport operator.
Durability - A biometric device, such as a door reader, should be evaluated for its durability
in relation to the intended application and environment where it will be used. For example,
devices that will be directly exposed to outdoor weather effects should be independently
certified for such environments. While most manufacturers provide a meantime-between-
failure (MTBF) rate for their products, it is always best to consult with other airport operators
Links Archive Navigation Previous Page Next Page