Home' RTCA Documents for Review : Addressing Human Factors/Pilot Interface Issues Contents 16
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the certification authority to develop a shared understanding of the problem and
If necessary, discuss level of product fidelity required by pilot-in-the-loop
evaluations in order to achieve desired risk reduction.
Coordinate with the certification authority and review certification support desired.
As availability of specialists can be limited, prior coordination may improve the
chances of getting the right help at the right time.
A regular forum/exchange between the applicant, avionics supplier as applicable,
and the certification authority may help resolve issues. The scope, size, and
makeup of the group should be tailored for the complexity of the program.
Documentation of meetings and decisions should be made.
Pilot-in-the-loop evaluations of installed equipment using representative
flightcrew in the representative environments are beneficial in the following ways:
o Provides the applicant with operational performance evidence that the system
or feature can work effectively within the entire cockpit system.
o Provides insights into effectiveness of procedures and training requirements
using draft Aircraft Flight Manuals (AFM) as available.
o Provides insight into the types of errors that the flightcrew might make while
using the new system, allowing for early identification of possible design
o Helps identify issues related to workload (e.g., 14 CFR 2X.771 Pilot
compartment, 2X.1523) as well as cognitive interpretation and understanding.
If significant design changes are needed because of reviews, test results, or
analyses, periodic communication of the impact of these may help reduce
certification approval risk.
Involve human factors specialists and flight test pilots in failure hazard analyses
for an understanding of flight deck effects and consideration of human factors
principles for failure conditions and procedures associated with mitigating the
Results from human factors evaluations performed during the product
development phase may provide evidence applicable for certification credit, and
reduce the amount of required formal testing. Coordination with the certification
authority may be necessary to ensure that the conduct of the evaluations will meet
the requirements needed to qualify the results as certification evidence.
Certification authority personnel may or may not be present for these evaluations.
Formal testing is done on an article or component that conforms to the proposed type
design in form, fit, and function. The purpose of formal testing for human factors is to show
compliance to the applicable human factors related regulations using MOCs such as
simulator, ground, or flight testing as stated in the plan for human factors compliance.
Depending on the scope of the program, formal testing to show compliance to the
applicable human factors components of regulations using MOCs may be done as a
standalone test(s), or as part of other planned testing. There may be some certification
efforts where formal test is not required because compliance to regulations is sufficiently
demonstrated through other means.
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